Are there any kind Scotsmen or Scotswomen who could read my History essay and tell me what to add? :)?

Are there any kind Scotsmen or Scotswomen who could read my History essay and tell me what to add? :)?
I’m an American college undergraduate (a senior), and I’m in an English Civil War graduate-level History course, and I need a bit of help on my term paper 🙂

The title of the essay is “Development of the Scottish Revolution to the Start of the First Bishop’s War”, and I have to add about five more pages of material to this essay (I have 15 pages down currently). Anyway, the essay is here:

What other events or people could I mention in this essay?
The essay itself can’t run into details of the First Bishops War itself…just everything that led up to that point.
In other words, what else can I mention?

Thank you very much!!!

Best answer:

Answer by Bob
Do you really think this is the appropriate category for critique requests for your degree? This is my understanding of events.

After 11 years without a Parliament, in which Charles dragged up old laws to raise money and built up the navy to protect his people, England became prosperous again through trade and science and its people became cultured and more literate. Charles initiated the draining of the fens, the Royal Mail postal service, and improved roads and laws to help the poor.

In 1636, Charles introduced a new prayer book for Scotland, with the aim of bringing it more in line with the English version. The new book was basically the English Prayer Book and was introduced, so the front page said, through Royal Prerogative. The Scots saw it as Catholic and Popish, due to the detailed and fine writing and beautiful decoration.

It was first used in 1637 at St Giles’s Cathedral where it caused an uproar and people bellowed that the Mass was amongst them. A stool was thrown at the minister reading it and in 1638, the whole nation had united to refuse this book. They signed a national covenant, which bound them all to their true and reformed religion, and not to the new prayer book.

The Scots abolished the Bishops that James I had managed to get them to accept, and reverted to full blown Presbyterianism. Charles prepared for war with Scotland to impose religious conformity and in 1639, arrived in York with 18,000 foot and 3000 horsemen. His good housekeeping over ten years had improved finances, though these troops were raw, untrained and not adequately armed and commanded.

The Scots were backed by the immense fire of religious fervour and were well trained, being 22,000 foot and 500 horsemen.

Charles’s men advanced to meet the Scots, but on seeing the numbers and conditions, retreated without fighting, while the Scots sent peace negotiators to the King.

The King’s money was now spent and he was preparing for another war with the Scots who refused to budge on their full Presbyterianism. He summoned a Parliament at Strafford’s insistence in 1640 and Charles showed them a letter from the Scots appealing for French Catholic aid, addressing the French King as their Sovereign. But Parliament was not interested.

They began drawing up a declaration of woes of the last 11 years and Charles even agreed to give up the ancient Ship Money he had been levying without their consent, in exchange for subsidies, but to no avail. As Charles said, he swore that all the profit from Ship Money had gone to the Royal Navy for protection against pirates and provided the proof.

The House of Lords sympathised, but Parliament continued debating and Charles reluctantly dissolved it.

The Scots, meanwhile, were pushing for the Covenant to be extended to England in their own act of forced conformity and wanted Archbishop Laud (the Archbishop of Canterbury) and the Earl of Strafford (who led the forces of Northern England) to be brought to justice. The 25,000 Scots prepared to cross the Tweed and Charles again left for York to defend England with his own devices and no aid from Parliament.

A small battle occurred at Newburn Ford where the English cavalry were scattered and Charles received a petition demanding a Parliament and punishment for the King’s advisors. In response, Charles made the Earl of Strafford a Knight of the Garter, the highest honour in the land. This reinforced his insistenced that he decided who his ministers were and whether they should stay or go.

But time was running out, money was spent again and the English army did not have the heart to fight and it dwindled away. Charles was forced to summon another Parliament in 1640.

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One Response to “Are there any kind Scotsmen or Scotswomen who could read my History essay and tell me what to add? :)?”

  • Lew says:

    You could add something about what actually happened in the churches and to the scottish preachers after 1637

    “King Charles I had introduced the Book of Common Prayer to Scotland in 1637 to the fury and resentment of the populace. He declared that opposition to the new liturgy would be treason, and thus came about the Covenant.
    There followed a period of very severe repression. Ministers with Covenanting sympathies were “outed” from their churches by the authorities, and had to leave their parishes. Many continued to preach at “conventicles” in the open air or in barns and houses. This became an offence punishable by death. Citizens who did not attend their local churches (which were now in the charge of Episcopalian “curates”) could be heavily fined, and such offenders were regarded as rebels, who could be questioned, even under torture. They could be asked to take various oaths, which not only declared loyalty to the king, but also to accept his as head of the church. Failure to take such an oath could result in summary execution by the muskets of the dragoons, who were scouring the districts looking for rebels.”
    and you can find more information and the rest of the article quoted in the answer above at

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